Wednesday, March 21, 2018

Greenland Is Literally Cracking Apart and Flooding the World

By Brandon Specktor, Senior Writer | March 19, 2018
Greenland's lakes are draining away in hours, thanks to a vast network of fissures hidden on the ice sheet below.
Credit: Timo Lieber
Visit Greenland on the right summer day, and you could see a 12-billion-gallon lake disappear before your very eyes.

Glaciologists saw this happen for the first time in 2006, when a 2.2-square-mile (5.6 square kilometers) lake of melted ice drained away into nothing in less than 2 hours. Researchers now see such events as a regular part of Greenland's increasingly hot summer routine; every year, thousands of temporary lakes pop up on Greenland's surface as the surrounding ice melts, sit around for a few weeks or months, and then suddenly drain away through cracks in the ice sheet underneath. [Images of Melt: Earth's Vanishing Ice]

On a recent expedition, however, researchers saw an alarming new pattern behind Greenland's mysterious disappearing lakes: They're starting to drain farther and farther inland. According to a new paper published today (March 14) in the journal Nature Communications, that's because the summer lakes of Greenland drain in a "cascading" chain reaction enabled by a vast, interconnected web of cracks below the ice — and as temperatures climb, the web is getting wider.
Scientists abseil into a fracture in the ice left behind when one of Greenland's summer lakes rapidly drained.
Scientists abseil into a fracture in the ice left behind when one of Greenland's summer lakes rapidly drained.
Credit: Samuel Doyle
"Lakes that drain in one area produce fractures that cause more lakes to drain somewhere elsewhere," co-author Marion Bougamont, a glaciologist at the University of Cambridge's Scott Polar Research Institute, said in a statement. "It all adds up when you look at the pathways of water underneath the ice."

In the new paper, Bougamont and her colleagues used 3D ice-flow models and satellite images of the Greenland Ice Sheet to study this chain reaction. The authors found that when warming weather causes a single lake to drain into the underlying ice sheet, the ice flow below that lake can accelerate dramatically — up to 400 percent faster than in winter months.

As the draining water surges away from the original lake, it can destabilize other nearby ice beds. Fresh cracks form, new lakes drain and the reaction intensifies day by day. In one incident, the researchers observed 124 lakes drain in just five days. Even lakes that formed hundreds of kilometers inland, which were previously thought to be too far removed from the ice bed to drain into it, proved vulnerable to the chain-drain-reaction as new fissures in the ice formed.

This all amounts to billions of gallons of melted ice plunging below Greenland's surface every few days. Some of this water remains trapped in the ice sheet; much of it pours into the surrounding ocean.

"This ice sheet, which covers 1.7 million square kilometers [650,000 square miles], was relatively stable 25 years ago, but now loses one billion tons [900 million metric tons] of ice every day," lead author Poul Christoffersen, also from Cambridge's Scott Polar Research Institute, said in the statement. "This causes one millimeter of global sea level rise per year, a rate which is much faster than what was predicted only a few years ago."

According to a 2017 report, ice loss in Greenland was responsible for about 25 percent of global sea level rise in 2014 — up from just 5 percent in 1993. 

If Greenland melts completely, it could result in a global sea-level rise of about 20 feet (6 meters). According to the Cambridge researchers, a total loss of Greenland's ice is "extremely unlikely in this century" — but even minor increases in sea level could have severe consequences around the world, the authors noted. According to a recent report from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), if sea levels rise half a meter (1.6 feet) by 2100, many American coastal cities will experience high-tide flooding "every other day" or more.
Originally published on Live Science.
Thanx  Brandon Specktor
Knight Jonny  C .

Tuesday, March 20, 2018

Plastic Trash in Oceans could Triple in Ten Years

See the source image


Photo of a manta ray and sea turtle swimming amongst trash.

Plastic in the ocean could triple between 2015 and 2025, according to a new report for the United Kingdom government. The Foresight Future of the Sea report said the marine environment faces “unprecedented change as a result of direct human activity and climate change,” and the authors are calling for further investigation according to Professor Edward Hill of the UK National Oceanography Center  “We really need a mission to planet ocean — it’s the last frontier.”

According to Hill, the ocean is “critical to our economic future. Nine billion people will be looking to the ocean for more food. Yet we know so little of what’s down there. We invest a lot of money and enthusiasm for missions to space — but there’s nothing living out there. The sea bed is teeming with life.”
The report recommends reducing pollution by preventing plastic from entering the ocean, utilizing biodegradable plastic, or even creating public awareness campaigns for ocean protection. It also states that the ocean faces threats beyond simple plastic pollution. By 2100, the ocean could warm 1.2 to 3.2 degrees Celsius, depending on emissions — leading to coral bleaching and a slump for cold-water fish species. The report states that ocean warming “is likely to lead to new species in ocean waters,” while marine biodiversity could take a hit from climate change and over-exploitation.

 It stresses that the ocean is being assailed from many different types of pollution - including run-off pesticides and fertilizers from farms, industrial toxins like PCBs, and pharmaceuticals.
The authors say if governments can identify ways of protecting biodiversity in the seas, there are riches to be harvested - fish,  nodules of metals and possibly even cures for cancer.
This latter suggestion alarmed Rachel Jones, a marine expert. "Given that 90% of global fisheries are  in excess of sustainable catch levels, I can't really see how they are going to expand  the fishing industry at any time."

Only about 20 percent of ocean plastic comes from marine sources, such as discarded fishing equipment or cargo ship mishaps. About 80 percent of it washes out to sea from beach litter or was carried downstream in rivers, according to the CSIRO study, which is considered the most comprehensive.
About half of that litter is plastic bottles. Most of the rest is packaging. All of that stuff was in a human's hand at one point or another. The essence of the solution is to provide incentives for people not to throw this stuff away. It is the cheapest, simplest, and far most efficient solution to the problem.
Creating incentives to help reduce littering can be a political challenge. Only one of Australia's eight main states and territories has a beverage-container deposit law.
In the U.S. only ten states—including California, Maine, Massachusetts, and Connecticut-have enacted container deposit laws.
The harm to fish and other sea creatures is increasing. Eight scientists, recently analyzed material in all of the garbage patches. Of  671 fish collected, 35 percent had ingested plastic particles.  Not too nourishing for the fish or for you, when that fish ends up on your plate.

Thanx to BBC and National Geographic

Sunday, March 18, 2018

Poppa and me have fun

 Did  you tell about clmate chnge   tel people  to help clean   Mama earth  it will make you fell good  to tel what you know   daddy go to school   he was  in my  clas   daddy say mrs Jarvis  he got a prblem  my son is not speling  his word      daddy got it fix  , my sistr  say daddy  Man can spel     look at the school and Man post paper   Jenny  say  daddy Man need to take his time   so he will see the letter 
Daddy and I had a man to man  talk     daddy say poppa  want me to take my time  so the   angel can read  my post   it take  a long time  to find the letter   daddy say  I will get better  daddy say use my dictionary    daddy say he will help me    daddy say I may not win a spelling be  
people will know what I say   I have a lot to say   about poppa   I want to tel you  abut help mama take  stuf  to hotel at  nanook shop   it is on 3 floor    a man saw poppa  and mr  Mac  and  me  he call poppa   , the man shok poppa hand  , poppa said this is Mr. Mac  my driver   the man say is this the baby  grand son , poppa say yes  he is just like me    the man said  yes he is   mr Mac grin  say they both stay  in truble     poppa and man was talk  I want mama to come so I can go 
It was  a big room  with lot of people  at table  and  put money in macine   people was geting money out  macine   I  saw people sting at table    I walk in the room  there was  a chair   at a table   I sit   on chair    I look  back  mr Mac  was watch me   I see poppa and  man  was talk    it was  lot of table with  people  sit    a man ask me  where is mama   I say in the shop  store   he say do she  know where you are   I say no  mama  say poppa watch me    I look  to see if  the food was coming        he  say do you play  pokr   I say yes   I play  and win all the time  the man say lady do you know him   she say no  she will get  a man to find mama  I say lady  my mama is  not lost    she is  in  the shop   lady call  man to come   to find mama    mr . Mac  come  say  can he help   the lady  say he is lost    mr  Mac grin  say   he is not lost   lady say do you know him  mr  Mac say   yes    I say mr  Mac when the bring the food     mr  Mac  grin  say  here come your poppa  
Poppa  was grin  he say Man what you dong   son you  want to play pokr   I say no poppa  they are  wait  to eat   Poppa grin  say  we go before  your mama  see us    the man say  to poppa  do he belong to you   poppa say  yes  he mine   the man say  what son , poppa say  my oldr  son   this is the  baby   his mama will  spak my musty but  if she see him in here  
mr Mac  tel poppa mama is in the  hall look for us  poppa  say come man we will make  a run  for it   mama see us   come in poppa say run Man   poppa was  run   I run   people grin   say    run here she come   I   look back mr  Mac  was  on a stol grin   poppa got my hand   we run  to  the  place you sit  down   mama    and  mr Mac come   mama say poppa what you do if game people  come  ask what Man do in  pokr  room    poppa grin say  I tel them  Man is  midet   poppa  slap his leg  and grin     mama roll her eye mama say heavn help her   mama say poppa is a hand ful  and grin 
We leave  hotel casno   go to daddy office  I like go to daddy office   poppa and me have  good time     mama say  you to boys be good   mama say she   will  do some work for daddy mama say daddy is in court   with  mr Leonard on a case .
Mama  went in  office  with mrs  Anita     poppa aand I  went  to the  lobby behind the desk   poppa got the  mike     poppa and me  start sing     poppa   make it go   in all the  office   up and down stairs , we sing  poppa  bring the mike  to   front of  desk   we sing and dance   the peple waitng in the loby   pat they hand   and some sing with poppa and me     1 lady  got up  and dance with poppa    she  ask poopa is he got a wife   poppa grin say no   he  got  a lady in canda    she is all he  want  and poppa  grin   poppa tell lady he  got 2 brothr  they want  wife  poppa grin 
I  wil tel you  about  1 time  when  we went to Reno   poppa gave me a pony    one of poppa race  horse is  his daddy   I name him Horse    he run real fast     I   say   poppa I want to race  Horse  
Horse was in  6  race before poppa go to heavn    Horse  place  3 and 2 and  5 and  3 and  2 and 2    poppa was happy   Horse  did  good   in harnes   race   mama  ride  bugy  round tract  one time      I   say Horse  you win one for poppa this year      I will tell you  if Horse win one  this year   race  season is  May to Septeber  
I hope you lke my story about poppa    and tell peple  about  climte change .
Kight  Man  C.

Thursday, March 15, 2018

What our future looks like


Knowing that we have the power to influence global climate is enormously important when trying to imagine what our climate might look like in 2050. To a large degree, we are deciding the future right now, by every action we take and the actions our leaders take now and in the immediate future.
There are, of course, still some people who do not “believe” in human-caused climate change. Their reasons for this are usually justified by two arguments: The Earth’s environment goes through natural cycles and humans cannot change those cycles. Indeed, variations on this line of reasoning are found daily in social media and other news outlets.

The first of these arguments is true--at least to a degree. The Earth’s environment certainly has different states and, at various times in its history, the Earth has both been much colder and much warmer than it is today. In periods, the Earth’s environment has also apparently “cycled” between different states, for example between ice and non-ice ages. On much shorter time scales, we see oscillations between El Niño and La Niña events.

However, the second argument is demonstrably wrong.  Human activities are, without a doubt, influencing not only the global climate system but also several other global processes, which are important for establishing and maintaining the environment on Earth now and in the future.
It is this recognition of our ability to alter processes at the planetary level that causes many to refer to the current period of Earth history as the Anthropocene, meaning the “period of humankind”. And knowing that we have the power to influence global climate is enormously important when we want to imagine what our climate might look like in 2050.

Climate is controlled by how much of the Sun’s heat energy arrives at, and remains near, the Earth’s surface. Scientists tell us that we can expect no major changes in heat arriving from the Sun for many thousands of years to come. So the changes we will see in climate from now until 2050 will mostly be related to how much of the arriving heat stays here.
This is where our greenhouse gas (GHG) waste (“emission”) becomes important. The greater the concentration of these gases in the atmosphere, the more heat is retained near the Earth and the higher the global average temperature will be.

How hot could it get?
Global political leaders have agreed (the Paris Climate Agreement) that we, the global community, will reduce our GHG emissions to the point that human-caused global warming will never raise the average annual global air temperature by more than two degrees Celsius.  Even if all countries at the signing of the Paris Agreement met that goal,  human-caused global warming is expected to reach around three degrees.
Of course, it is possible and for all of us to adopt even more ambitious goals. If we do so, then many scientists believe that it is still possible to keep global warming within two degrees. The chances of meeting this goal are, however, quickly waning--a recent scientific report suggests that there is only about a five per cent chance of restraining global warming to within two degrees.

By September 2017, two major hurricanes, including Irma (pictured), had swept through the Caribbean and the coast of southeast US. Climate change is suspected to have already made the impacts of hurricanes more extreme, due to more rain and larger storm surges, and this may continue in the future.
If we do no more than we are doing today to reduce GHG emissions, climate science projects that temperature in 2100 will be up to approximately five degrees higher than it is today. The model results generated should not be taken as absolute predictions, but they do provide estimates of the emissions reduction necessary to restrain human-caused global warming to within  the two degree limit.

The Earth will still be warming in 2050
So, the Earth will be warmer in 2050 than it is today and it will still be warming. As noted above, it takes a long time for the Earth’s system to adjust to the changes in its energy budget that increased GHG concentrations imply. That means that, even if we stopped all greenhouse gas emissions today, air temperature would continue to increase for decades.

Even if the goals of the Paris Climate Agreement are met, by 2050 we will globally be looking at heat waves that are dangerous for human health, changes in patterns of rainfall and snowfall, more intense storms, and changes in the distribution, and even extinctions, of various plants and animals--including human pathogens.

Warming will be felt differently around the world. For example, Africa, where populations are growing faster than anywhere else, it will mean increasingly large areas plagued by drought and the potential mass migration of people no longer able to grow food locally and find water.

While in Northern Europe, it will mean warmer winters but also more rain, an increasing number of cloudbursts, stronger storms, and changes in their surrounding natural environment. Some already wet agricultural lands will become too wet to farm and sea level will continue to rise.
Coastal regions will be eroded, washing buildings and other infrastructure out to sea and leading to higher insurance premiums.

The Arctic ice will be gone; and along with it, most of the wildlife that flourished there. That such changes will characterize the climate in 2050 is almost without doubt. The question is really only the degree of these changes, and that is something that we—ourselves—must decide.


And then there's the weather. If the extreme El Niño event of 2015-2016 was any indication, we're in for more natural disasters — storm surges, wildfires, and heat waves are on the menu for 2070 and beyond.
 Uncontrollable wild fires

Rainforests, our source of oxygen and  an important  filter for carbon dioxide, deforested almost completely.
Arable land turned to desert wastelands
Islands completely engulfed by rising water levels 
Dried up riverbeds
Desolate wasteland around urban areas
Remaining waterways choked with garbage
Glaciers melted away
The  Amazon ( also known as the lungs of the earth ) denuded of  trees and animal habitats
People living near the sea becoming surrounded by water.\


I hope you found freedom...Pax

Sunday, March 11, 2018

14 U.S. Cities That Could Disappear Over The Next Century, Thanks To Global Warming

There is really no way around it: Thanks to climate change, sea levels are rising. A huge question on the minds of many is, what does this mean for America? Will sea walls and city planning protect major metropolises, or are we bound to lose some national gems? Unfortunately, the latter is a significant possibility. Read on for 14 U.S. cities that could be devastated over the next century due to rising tides.
1. Miami, Fla.
Is South Beach your go-to summer spot? Do you vacation at the Fountainbleu? Well, climate change might force you to kiss America’s party city goodbye. In a Rolling Stone article written earlier this summer, Jeff Goodell creates a pretty terrifying hypothetical of what a dystopic future could look like in Miami:

With sea levels more than a foot higher than they’d been at the dawn of the century, South Florida was wet, vulnerable and bankrupt. Attempts had been made to armor the coastline, to build sea walls and elevate buildings, but it was a futile undertaking. The coastline from Miami Beach up to Jupiter had been a little more than a series of rugged limestone crags since the mid-2020s, when the state, unable to lay out $100 million every few years to pump in fresh sand, had given up trying to save South Florida’s world-famous­ beaches.
Read more about Goodell’s predictions for Miami’s future, and his investigation into climate resiliency.
2. Fort Lauderdale, Fla.
Located less than 30 miles north of Miami, Fort Lauderdale’s future looks similarly doomed. Scientists also warn that long-term sea level rise that would doom Fort Lauderdale’s beachfront could be “locked in” by 2060 if we don’t curtail greenhouse gas emissions. Climate Central researcher Benjamin Strauss adds that “even if we could just stop global emissions tomorrow on a dime, Fort Lauderdale, Miami Gardens, Hoboken, New Jersey will be under sea level.”
3. Boston, Mass.
If Hurricane Sandy struck Boston during high tide, 6.6 percent of the city would have been flooded. Water would have reached the steps of City Hall, according to a piece in The Atlantic. Within 100 years, that could become the new normal, twice a day. Goodbye Boston, even the Yankee fans will miss you.
4. New York City, N.Y.
Probably one of the least surprising entry on this list, Hurricane Sandy gave New Yorkers just a taste of what might happen to their city over the next hundred years. According to new data released in June, sea level could rise by 4-8 inches in New York over just the next TEN years. A terrifying interactive from the New York Times shows that a five-foot rise in sea level would submerge La Guardia airport, many of the barrier islands, and a significant portion of Manhattan.
5. Atlantic City, N.J.
Some of the most shocking images from Hurricane Sandy came from the Atlantic City boardwalk. The place known for carefree debauchery lay in shambles of wooden planks and sand. Was the devastation a sign of things to come? This report suggests that Atlantic City could be a major casualty of sea level rise.
6. Honolulu, Hawaii
Sea level does not rise evenly. While that may mean less of a rise for some places (like those near Greenland) some places will be inundated with much higher tides than others. Like Hawaii. According to a study released in February, the beautiful islands are likely to be hit the hardest by rising sea levels. Some experts claim that just a one INCH rise could cause shoreline to move up eight feet. A one-foot rise would cause the beach to move 100 feet inland. Just imagine what happens to Honolulu when the sea rises by 5 feet.
7. New Orleans, La.
According to The Lens, a Louisiana non-profit news site, Louisiana might be facing the highest sea level rise worldwide. This does not bode well for the low-lying Big Easy, which could be immersed with 4.3 feet of water by the end of the century. Mardi Gras, the French Quarter and NOLA’s jazz scene may all be a thing of the past.
8. Sacramento, Calif.
Although Sacramento is not coastal, it is by no means safe from sea level rise. Thanks to the many waterways surround the area, including the flowing Sacramento river, a five foot sea level rise would inevitably affect California’s capital city. According to the Sacramento Bee, even a moderate rise of two feet could flood a number of neighborhoods.
9. San Diego, Calif.
The outlook for San Diego is pretty grim when it comes to sea level rise. Local news station KPBS reports that the city could see rising tides of 18 inches to four feet by the year 2050. Nickolay Lamm, an artist who has made a number of shocking and beautiful climate change images, created a scary rendering of what San Diego could look like in a future of rising seas.
10. Los Angeles, Calif.
According to a report released by the National Research Council, Southern California is in for quite the climate change fiasco. Acres of beautiful coastline will be engulfed by rising seas, including Long Beach, Venice and Santa Monica.
11. Charleston, S.C.
In a 2007 article, the Charleston City Paper took a very similar approach to Goodell’s Miami doomsday scenario, and painted a picture of what could happen to the city over the next 100 years:

The boat drifts past the ruins of St. Michael’s Church, with its gaping, glass-toothed windows and collapsed steeple, as the tour guide drones on about its rich history and the last services held there back in 2053 — the church’s 300th anniversary — before the rising waters drove its last parishioners to higher ground. The guide reminds you of the great global climate change exodus that began in earnest that decade, with nearly a billion refugees from coastal regions everywhere on top of untold millions of climate-related deaths.
Pretty terrifying. According to the paper, even the best-case scenario will probably wipe away Charleston’s beautiful beachfront mansions and pristine beaches.
12. Virginia Beach, Va.
Virginia Beach’s pristine coast could be obliterated in the next 50 years. In fact, NOAA says that it’s the most threatened area for sea level rise of its size after New Orleans. According to Virginia Beach environmental administrator Clay Bernick, there are too many warning signs to ignore the science. “I wouldn’t put it in the category of fear,” he told The Washington Post, but stressed, “You’ve got multiple factors with flashing lights saying, ‘Okay, guys, what are you going to do?’”

A word to the wise: If you haven’t made your way down to the Hampton Roads area, you might want to make the trip before it is too late.
13. Seattle, Wash.
James Rufo Hill, a climatologist with Seattle Public Utilities, knows Seattle could be in dire trouble by the year 2050. City neighborhoods like Georgetown, South Park, Harbor Island, Interbay and Golden Gardens could be flooded daily during high tide in the next few decades. Check out the video to see Hill explain how climate change will affect the notoriously rainy city.
14. Savannah, Ga.
Savannah, a beautiful southern city only a few miles from marshlands, has a lot to lose if the sea rises by only three feet. Check out this shocking image created by Climate Central to see exactly how much of the city could turn into an underwater wonderland.
Crusader Jenny , Nanook & Knight Mika

Friday, March 9, 2018

Winter temperatures are soaring in the Arctic for the fourth winter in a row. The heat, accompanied by moist air, is entering the Arctic not only through the sector of the North Atlantic Ocean that lies between Greenland and Europe, as it has done in previous years, but is also coming from the North Pacific through the Bering Strait.

“We have seen winter warming events before, but they’re becoming more frequent and more intense,” said Alek Petty, a sea ice researcher at NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Maryland.

Scientists are waiting to see how much this heat wave will impact the wintertime sea ice maximum extent, which has been shrinking in the past decades and has hit record lows each of the past three years. The sea ice levels are already at record lows or near-record lows in several areas of the Arctic. Another exceptional event this winter is the opening up of the sea ice cover north of Greenland, releasing heat from the ocean to the atmosphere and making the sea ice more vulnerable to further melting.

“This is a region where we have the thickest multi-year sea ice and expect it to not be mobile, to be resilient,” Petty said. “But now this ice is moving pretty quickly, pushed by strong southerly winds and probably affected by the warm temperatures, too.”

 NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center
Thanx : NASA 
Knight Sha  C.